Muhammad Azizal Hoque, Md. Misbahul Hasan, Md. Abdul Baten and Md. Badiuzzaman Khan
Indoor air pollution is deemed one of the most severe environmental pollutions that occur mainly due to the inefficient and incomplete combustion of solid cooking fuels, which emits different types of particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10). Therefore, this study was organized in the hilly rural area of Sagordighi of Tangail district in Bangladesh to monitor the atmospheric particulate matters PM2.5, PM10 and CO (carbon monoxide) concentrations from the rural kitchens as well as the possible health hazards due to exposure of the air pollutants. One hundred and thirty air samples were collected from the kitchens by using Airveda air quality monitor and Testo 317-3 – Ambient CO meter to monitor the particulate matter and carbon-monoxide concentrations respectively during cooking and non-cooking time. A survey was also conducted through questionnaire. The concentrations of PM2.5 fluctuated from 112-999 µgm-3 whereas the mean concentration was 401.88±232 µgm-3 during cooking time. On the other hand, PM10 concentration varied from 114-1999 µgm-3 were observed during cooking time with a mean concentration was 523.10±413 µgm-3. The concentration of PM2.5 varied from 32-362 µgm-3 at non-cooking period while the mean value was 81.38±41 µgm-3. The concentration of PM10 ranged between 55-429 µgm-3 at non-cooking period and the mean of PM10 was 109.51±51 µgm-3. The mean concentration of CO during cooking period was 51.52±17 ppm and it varied from 20 ppm to 96.4 ppm. On the contrary, the mean concentration of CO during non-cooking period was 6.60± 6 ppm and it fluctuated from 0 to 40 ppm. The concentration of atmospheric particulate matter showed the highest concentration during cooking time. Contemplation on the measured concentration of particulate matters, these values were greater than concentration found in many European cities and also surpassed the Bangladesh National Ambient Air Quality Standard. The monitored CO value exceeded the recommended value. Questionnaire survey result indicated that respondents suffered from various diseases due to household cooking activities such as facing eye irritation, headaches, dry cough, dizziness and nasal congestion during cooking time. This research suggests installation of improved cooking stoves and providing proper ventilation facilities in kitchen and using renewable energy as well as creating public awareness among rural communities for minimizing the impacts of pollutants emitted from cooking activities.
Keywords: Indoor air quality; Cooking fuel; Particulate matter; Health Hazard; Rural community.